The negative Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) attitude towards a conception of warfare as a divinely ordained means of religion

The concept of ‘holy war’ is defined and distinguished by two core ideas: First, by the idea that warfare is arbitrarily justified as divine order, i.e. command; second, that warfare is perceived and propagated as a means of religion employed against infidels or heretics, thus granting the believer-warriors absolution and sanctification. Continue reading “The negative Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) attitude towards a conception of warfare as a divinely ordained means of religion”

The first encounter between Roman and Muslim forces (7th century AD) – Motivation & Tactics of the Muslim side

“After the consolidation of the tribes in the Arabian Peninsula, Mohammad determined to unite all the Arab speaking people under the banner of Islam. In 629, he began sending exploratory forces into Syria and Iraq to offer a stick or a carrot to the large contingents of Arabs in those areas. Continue reading “The first encounter between Roman and Muslim forces (7th century AD) – Motivation & Tactics of the Muslim side”

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