Ethnic identities and women’s position in Graeco-Roman Egypt

Egypt under Greek and Roman rule (from c. 332 BC) was a diverse place, its population including Egyptians, Greeks, Jews, Romans, Nubians, Arabs, and others. In this post we attempt a short presentation on how Graeco-Roman Egypt functioned as a diverse multiethnic, multilingual society and of the legal and political frameworks within which this diversity was organised and negotiated. Continue reading “Ethnic identities and women’s position in Graeco-Roman Egypt”

Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The 7th century Germany & Scandinavia

From the early seventh century the sources available to us are more numerous and more evenly distributed across the west. By this period, the ‘ethnic’ armies descended from the late Roman field armies had evolved into armies raised from classes of landowners. This evolution continued through the seventh century. Continue reading “Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The 7th century Germany & Scandinavia”

Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The seventh century Lombard Italy

From the early seventh century the sources available to us are more numerous and more evenly distributed across the west. By this period, the ‘ethnic’ armies descended from the late Roman field armies had evolved into armies raised from classes of landowners. This evolution continued through the seventh century. Continue reading “Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The seventh century Lombard Italy”

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