Paleolithic finds in the Prefecture of Drama, Macedonia, Greece

In this article we present findings of the Paleolithic period in the Prefecture of Drama.


“The Prefecture of Drama has a notable history with monuments that bear witness to its course in time. Palaeontologists’ findings provide evidence that the area is continuously inhabited from the Paleolithic period until the Neolithic period and the copper age. (…)

The archaeological museum of Drama covers the human presence in the prefecture of Drama from the Middle Paleolithic Age (50,000 years ago), with elements from the daily life of Paleolithic nomads and hunters in the cave of Aggitis’ Springs until modern times”



“Drama, a place of human activity since the Middle Paleolithic era, has a rare element of architecture which is based on the results of the archaeological research: it is the reconstruction of a Neolithic residence with finds of excavations, describing the daily life of the Neolithic man and is exposed in the local archaeological museum”


“The archaeological finds record the cultural history of Drama and the region from nomad hunters of the Middle Paleolithic Age (50,000 BC), until the first farmers and breeders of the Neolithic communities (5,500-3,000 BC) and then, from the first patriarchal Bronze Age societies (3,000-1,050 BC) until the powerful tribes of the Early Iron Age (1,050-700 BC).

(…) The first traces of human presence in the area of the modern prefecture of Drama are represented by the findings brought to light by the excavation research inside the cave of Aggitis’ Springs, where a settlement of Paleolithic hunters was located. The finds are animal bones and stone tools dating back to the Middle Paleolithic Age (Mousterian period, 50,000 years before today)



“The Cave of Aggitis’ Springs (Maaras) is located at the northern edge of the Drama basin, on the southern foothills of Mt. Falakro. It is 25 km NW from the city of Drama and 500 m. from the settlement of Aggitis of the municipality of Prosotsane.

It is the largest, so far known, karstic duct of Greece with a total length of more than 15 km, of which approximately 10 km have been mapped. The natural entrance of the cave is the exit point of the underground river named Aggitis.

In the context of the excavation work of the cave in 1992, excavations were carried out by the Paleoanthropology-Speleology Ephorate under the direction of Aik. Trantalidou in two places: a) on the eastern slope of the corridor leading to the artificially opened entrance and b) inside the natural entrance of the cave.

South of the artificial entrance there were two fossil horizons with mammalian bones, coming -mainly- from animals of the Hippidian family but also of Cervidae, Ursidae, Elephantoids and Rhinoceroids, as well as Paleolithic stone tools from chert rocks and quartz. Absolute dating that emerged after analyses at the Archaeometry Laboratory of ΕΚΕΦΕ “Demokritos” gave an age of 34,000 – 27,900 years before today.”



The first signs of human presence date back to the Paleolithic era in the mountainous area of Arkoudorema”


Research-Selection: Philaretus Homerides

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