Neanderthals in Lower Palaeolithic Germany

The timing of the Middle Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles and the feedback mechanisms between climatic shifts and earth-surface processes are still poorly understood. Continue reading “Neanderthals in Lower Palaeolithic Germany”

Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The 7th century Germany & Scandinavia

From the early seventh century the sources available to us are more numerous and more evenly distributed across the west. By this period, the ‘ethnic’ armies descended from the late Roman field armies had evolved into armies raised from classes of landowners. This evolution continued through the seventh century. Continue reading “Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The 7th century Germany & Scandinavia”

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