The Turkic peoples in Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) ethnography

First, the Turkic peoples belonged to the most general category of “barbarians” (βάρβαροι). In Byzantine times, “barbarians” were opposed not so much to “Hellenes” (Ἕλληνες ), as in the classical and Hellenistic periods, but rather to the “Romans”,  Ῥωµαῖοι. Continue reading “The Turkic peoples in Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) ethnography”

Roman Empire vs the Goths; The disastrous battle of Hadrianople and a series of events with great importance in the future shaping of Europe

The battle of Hadrianople was fought on August 9 (A.D. 378); the leader of the Goths was Fritigern; the Romans were commanded by Emperor Valens himself. Valens made the great error of under-estimating the enemy. Continue reading “Roman Empire vs the Goths; The disastrous battle of Hadrianople and a series of events with great importance in the future shaping of Europe”

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