The “New Scipio”; Emperor Heraclius leads his troops further east than any Roman general had ever penetrated – The Nemesis of Chosroes’ blasphemous vanity

Heraclius took over the empire in a state of disorder and confusion. It seemed almost impossible to get things into better order, for resources were wanting. Save Africa and Egypt and the district immediately around the capital, all the provinces were overrun by the the Persian, the Avar, and the Slav. The treasury was empty, and the army had almost disappeared owing to repeated and bloody defeats in Asia Minor. Continue reading “The “New Scipio”; Emperor Heraclius leads his troops further east than any Roman general had ever penetrated – The Nemesis of Chosroes’ blasphemous vanity”

Popular and Aristocratic cultural trends in the Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) Empire

Byzantine tendencies toward urbanization and feudalization and the concomitant economic development in the provinces in the eleventh and twelfth centuries certainly affected contemporary culture, although different sectors of society reacted in distinct ways. Ιn Byzantium the peasantry and craft-working classes have left few traces. Continue reading “Popular and Aristocratic cultural trends in the Eastern Roman (‘Byzantine’) Empire”

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