Twelfth century ‘Byzantine’-Turkish relations

Here we present selected parts of the paper titled “«The sons of Hagar» in Archbishop Eustathios’ The capture of Thessaloniki. Some evidence concerning late twelfth century Byzantine-Turkish relations“, by Gerasimos A. Merianos. Continue reading “Twelfth century ‘Byzantine’-Turkish relations”

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Underestimation and misjudgement of the Muslim threat; a possible reason for the Roman defeat in the 7th century A.D.

“Roman histories and manuals of warfare contain no special wisdom on how to defend Palestine, Syria, or Roman Mesopotamia, or Egypt or what were the best tactics and strategy and forms of military operations to employ in fighting against Arabs. Continue reading “Underestimation and misjudgement of the Muslim threat; a possible reason for the Roman defeat in the 7th century A.D.”

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