Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The later sixth century

It seems clear that things had changed somewhat by the time that authors like Gregory of Tours wrote their works, and this makes it difficult to project their testimony back into the fifth century. Continue reading “Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The later sixth century”

Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The later fifth and early sixth centuries

The crucial period during and immediately following the final demise of the western Roman Empire is unfortunately badly served by written sources, so much of our discussion must be hypothetical, using the patchy fifth-century evidence and attempting to draw inferences from what appear to be remnants or survivals from this period in the sources of the sixth century. This method is far from satisfactory but a fairly coherent picture seems to emerge. Continue reading “Raising an army in Post-Roman Europe – The later fifth and early sixth centuries”

Roman Empire vs the Goths; The disastrous battle of Hadrianople and a series of events with great importance in the future shaping of Europe

The battle of Hadrianople was fought on August 9 (A.D. 378); the leader of the Goths was Fritigern; the Romans were commanded by Emperor Valens himself. Valens made the great error of under-estimating the enemy. Continue reading “Roman Empire vs the Goths; The disastrous battle of Hadrianople and a series of events with great importance in the future shaping of Europe”

Metal sources and Trade networks in Bronze Age Europe

The Bronze Age was the first long period in human history when widespread trade networks connected Europe and the wider Eurasian continent, defining a pre-modern era of globalization, or, ‘bronzization’. One of the driving forces behind the inter-regional trade was the constant need for metals, and other raw materials and goods available only in certain parts of Europe. Continue reading “Metal sources and Trade networks in Bronze Age Europe”

Vast Trade Networks in ‘Prehistoric’ Europe & the Mediterranean – Implications of the findings from Iberia

The identification of archaeological amber has been used in Iberian prehistory to evidence long-distance exchanges and engage Iberia in networks that connect western Europe with central and northern Europe. However, assuming a Baltic origin for these ambers is not usually supported by analytical data and numerous deposits are found in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary and Romania. Continue reading “Vast Trade Networks in ‘Prehistoric’ Europe & the Mediterranean – Implications of the findings from Iberia”

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