Patriarch (Pope) of Rome: First acts of political independence from Constantinople – Depopulation in Italy and slavery during the 6th century

De-population and Contraction of town life in Italy

Moorhead, in NCMH vol 1, p.158, notes that in Cassiodorus’s works – before 535AD – there are many references to open cities, while forts (castra, castella) are barely mentioned. In pope Gregory’s [590] works, however, the narrative is all forts. Continue reading “Patriarch (Pope) of Rome: First acts of political independence from Constantinople – Depopulation in Italy and slavery during the 6th century”

Transition to the Middle Ages – Ostrogoths, Lombards, Franks

We are not to suppose that the settlement of Germans within the Roman Empire ended with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, near the close of the fifth century. The following centuries witnessed fresh invasions and the establishment of new Germanic states. The study of these troubled times leads us from the classical world to the world of medieval Europe, from the history of antiquity to the history of the Middle Ages. Continue reading “Transition to the Middle Ages – Ostrogoths, Lombards, Franks”

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