Antiochus III the Great vs Ptolemy IV Philopator; the struggle for Coele-Syria – The battle of Raphia (217 B.C.)

When Ptolemy and his sister after their progress had reached the extremity of his left wing and Antiochus with his horse-guards had reached his extreme right, they gave the signal for battle and brought the elephants first into action. Continue reading “Antiochus III the Great vs Ptolemy IV Philopator; the struggle for Coele-Syria – The battle of Raphia (217 B.C.)”

Discovery of a 4,000-year-old military network in northern Syria

The discovery of more than a thousand sites in Syria has revised our understanding of the settlement of the steppes during all periods in the history of the Near East. Recently, analysis of aerial and satellite images has enabled the discovery of a vast structured surveillance and communication network dating from the Middle Bronze Age (2nd millennium BCE). Continue reading “Discovery of a 4,000-year-old military network in northern Syria”

Financial strain as one of the main reasons of Roman collapse against Muslims in the seventh century

Inconsistencies and contradictions accumulated, inhibited governmental efficiency, and intensified strains. Slow institutional change contrasted with the extreme undulations of popular moods. The institutional mechanisms through which the Byzantines developed their responses to external military challenges in the early decades of the seventh century remained essentially late Roman, modified slightly from their character in the Justinianic era, but strains were appearing. Continue reading “Financial strain as one of the main reasons of Roman collapse against Muslims in the seventh century”

The 7th century AD and its quickening pace of change in the Roman East

Emperor Maurice’s self-sworn avenger Heraclius had overthrown Phocas in 610, and assumed responsibility as emperor for the defense of the empire and the faith, and the
expulsion of the Persians. Although the Persians had overrun Syria and Palestine and threatened to occupy all of Asia Minor and even approached Constantinople, it was Heraclius who, after reconstituting his armies, had brought the war to the heart of the Sassanian Empire in early 628. The overthrow and death of Chosroes ensued. Continue reading “The 7th century AD and its quickening pace of change in the Roman East”

The battle of Yarmuk and the loss of Syria to the Muslims – One of the most bitter events in Roman History

“After Heraclius smashed the Persian army and Emperor Chosroes was killed, he set up a program to rebuild Persia as a friendly but independent nation. Chosroes successor, Siroes was paranoid that another member of the royal family would usurp his new crown and so murdered all his competition. It was to no avail as “Siroes himself was murdered after a reign of only eight months. This sent Persia into another crises since all the male members of the royal family had been put to death, no legitimate successor to the Crown could be found”. Continue reading “The battle of Yarmuk and the loss of Syria to the Muslims – One of the most bitter events in Roman History”

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