Frequency of attendance at religious services and cigarette smoking in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Here we present the ‘Abstract‘ of the corresponding paper by Gillum RF.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Data are lacking from representative samples of total populations and Hispanic Americans on the association of cigarette smoking and religiousness/spirituality, a protective factor for mortality, and on the validity of self-reported smoking data for religious research.

METHODS:

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) included 18,774 persons aged 20 years and over with complete data on self-reported frequency of attendance at religious services, and cigarette smoking.

RESULTS:

After stratifying by age, gender, and ethnic group, and adjusting for age, education, region, and health status, infrequent attenders (<24 times/year) were much more likely to be smokers than frequent attenders; odds ratios (95% confidence limits) ranged from 1.74 (1.45-2.10) to 3.06 (1.86-5.03). Among current smokers, frequent attenders smoked an average of 1-5 fewer cigarettes per day. Using serum cotinine > or =14 ng/mL as the gold standard for current smoking, under-reporting of smoking did not vary appreciably with frequency of attendance: false negative percentage for never smokers 3.1% in frequent attenders, 4.2% in others.

CONCLUSIONS:

Greater frequency of attendance at religious services was associated with lower smoking prevalence by self-report or serum cotinine in a national, multi-ethnic sample.

(Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15917059)

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